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References:
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- Prof. Floyd B. Hanson,
**Basic Floating Point Representation**, MSCS, University of Illinois at Chicago, Fall 2002. - Prof. William Kahan,
**Lecture Notes on the Status of IEEE Standard 754 for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic**, EECS, University of California at Berkeley, May 1996. See this postscript paper for more authoritative information by clicking the URL. (*not easy*). - Prof. Douglas N. Arnold,
**Some Disasters Attributable to Bad Numerical Computing**, IMA, University of Minnesota; including those due to rounding errors, overflow errors and finite element stress estimation errors. - Ingo Giese,
**General Risks and Bugs Literature (WWW 1-3) Page** - Prof. Thomas Huckle,
**Collection of Software Bugs**, Institut fur Informatik, TU Muenchen; including those bug related disasters, risk links, and Bill Gates' interview where he dismisses Windows bugs as having little influence on the marketing of Windows. - David Golberg,
*Computer Arithmetic*, an Appendix in*Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach*by John Hennessy and David Patterson, Morgan Kaufmann Publ., San Mateo, CA, 1990, pp. A-1ff. - Prof. G. W. (Pete) Stewart,
*Afternotes on Numerical Analysis*, SIAM, Philadelphia, 1996, pp. 45ff. - Caution: These references give varying precision numbers, depending on whether the binary unit normalizing digit is counted in the total or not.

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Email Comments or Questions to Professor Hanson
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